Real-Time Energy Management of Battery/Supercapacitor Electric Vehicles Based on an Adaptation of Pontryagin's Minimum Principle

IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, pp. 203-212, 2019.

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Real-time systemsBatteriesMathematical modelEnergy managementResistanceMore(2+)

Abstract:

The combination of batteries and supercapacitors is promising in electric vehicles context to minimize battery aging. Such a system needs an energy management strategy (EMS) that distributes energy in real-time for real driving cycles. Pontryagin's minimum principle (PMP) is widely used in adaptive forms to develop real-time optimization-...More

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