Impact of depth of field simulation on visual fatigue: Who are impacted? and how?

Int. J. Hum.-Comput. Stud., Volume 91, 2016, Pages 37-51.

Cited by: 11|Bibtex|Views21|Links
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Keywords:
Depth-of-fieldGaze-contingent displaysUser experienceDepth perceptionVisual-fatigue
Wei bo:
It is possible that this adaptation effect was absent in the depth of field þ stereoscopic cues without DOF condition because of the additional depth cue provided by depth of field that reduced reliance on stereopsis and the stimulus to adaptation

Abstract:

While stereoscopic content can be compelling, it is not always comfortable for users to interact with on a regular basis. This is because the stereoscopic content on displays viewed at a short distance has been associated with different symptoms such as eye-strain, visual discomfort, and even nausea. Many of these symptoms have been attri...More

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Introduction
  • Stereoscopic displays are no longer the exclusive prerogative of the cinema and research laboratories.
  • Soon the average user will have an option to choose between 2D and 3D displays for any device they might use.
  • There is increased interest in developing s3D applications for a variety of displays and devices.
  • Stereoscopic displays spark interest not only among users and developers but the research community.
Highlights
  • Stereoscopic displays are no longer the exclusive prerogative of the cinema and research laboratories
  • In terms of depth preferences, we observed that in some cases depth of field contributes to more compelling depth perception, when added to non-stereoscopic displays
  • We observed some mixed indications that depth of field might be a beneficial addition to stereoscopic displays
  • The improvement with stereoscopic viewing is consistent with stereoscopic adaptation that has been shown in the literature following practice with stereoscopic stimuli (Long and Over, 1973; Blakemore and Julesz, 1971)
  • It is possible that this adaptation effect was absent in the depth of field þ stereoscopic cues without DOF condition because of the additional depth cue provided by depth of field that reduced reliance on stereopsis and the stimulus to adaptation
  • As argued by Mather and Smith (2000) the effective range of stereopsis and blur are complementary and in some cases visual blur is expected to predominate for relative depths that exceed the range of disparity mechanisms
Methods
  • All participants could clearly see at the viewing distance without the use of eye-glasses.
  • All participants had uncorrected distance visual acuity of 20/30 or better and could see clearly at the viewing distance without glasses.
  • Written informed consent was obtained from all participants in accordance with a protocol approved by the York University Ethics Board.
  • As part of the pre-test, participants were screened for stereopsis and were excluded if stereo acuity was worse than 50 s of arc at a distance of 40.6 cm
Results
  • The significantly positive estimated weights for DOF þ Stereo indicated that the combined depth cues were preferred relative to the Mono base case, the estimated weights were significantly smaller than for the Stereo case.
  • This suggests that adding the DOF cue to a stereo display reduced, rather than enhanced, depth.
  • In the DOF þ Stereo condition, the stereoscopic threshold was increased on average relative to the baseline, while following stereoscopic displays without DOF simulation stereo threshold improved on average relative to baseline
Conclusion
  • In terms of depth preferences, the authors observed that in some cases DOF contributes to more compelling depth perception, when added to non-stereoscopic displays.
  • Users need additional depth cues to fill in the missing information
  • Many of these cues, such as chromatic aberration and accommodative microfluctuations (Nguyen et al, 2005), are not provided by gazecontingent DOF.
  • The authors' findings are consistent with Duchowski et al (2014b), who observed that people do not like gaze-contingent blurring effects
  • Their findings highlight the need to improve spatio-temporal fidelity, which includes, but is not limited to improving the accuracy of eye-tracking and reducing temporal lag.
  • Mitchell (1966) showed that blur can limit the range of disparity processing and DOF simulation may have reduced the range of stereoscopic depth processing which, in turn, limited adaptive changes in oculomotor functions
Summary
  • Introduction:

    Stereoscopic displays are no longer the exclusive prerogative of the cinema and research laboratories.
  • Soon the average user will have an option to choose between 2D and 3D displays for any device they might use.
  • There is increased interest in developing s3D applications for a variety of displays and devices.
  • Stereoscopic displays spark interest not only among users and developers but the research community.
  • Methods:

    All participants could clearly see at the viewing distance without the use of eye-glasses.
  • All participants had uncorrected distance visual acuity of 20/30 or better and could see clearly at the viewing distance without glasses.
  • Written informed consent was obtained from all participants in accordance with a protocol approved by the York University Ethics Board.
  • As part of the pre-test, participants were screened for stereopsis and were excluded if stereo acuity was worse than 50 s of arc at a distance of 40.6 cm
  • Results:

    The significantly positive estimated weights for DOF þ Stereo indicated that the combined depth cues were preferred relative to the Mono base case, the estimated weights were significantly smaller than for the Stereo case.
  • This suggests that adding the DOF cue to a stereo display reduced, rather than enhanced, depth.
  • In the DOF þ Stereo condition, the stereoscopic threshold was increased on average relative to the baseline, while following stereoscopic displays without DOF simulation stereo threshold improved on average relative to baseline
  • Conclusion:

    In terms of depth preferences, the authors observed that in some cases DOF contributes to more compelling depth perception, when added to non-stereoscopic displays.
  • Users need additional depth cues to fill in the missing information
  • Many of these cues, such as chromatic aberration and accommodative microfluctuations (Nguyen et al, 2005), are not provided by gazecontingent DOF.
  • The authors' findings are consistent with Duchowski et al (2014b), who observed that people do not like gaze-contingent blurring effects
  • Their findings highlight the need to improve spatio-temporal fidelity, which includes, but is not limited to improving the accuracy of eye-tracking and reducing temporal lag.
  • Mitchell (1966) showed that blur can limit the range of disparity processing and DOF simulation may have reduced the range of stereoscopic depth processing which, in turn, limited adaptive changes in oculomotor functions
Tables
  • Table1: The chart shows estimated weights of depth cues in determining depth preferences for both 30 À and 50þ groups. Each row shows the contribution of each cue (columns) to preference relative to the base case (1st column). A positive estimated weight implies that the case is more likely to be preferred
  • Table2: The chart shows estimated weights of various depth cues in determining comfort preferences for both 30 À and 50þ groups. Each row shows the contribution of each cue (columns) to preference relative to the base case (1st column). A positive estimated weight implies that the case is more likely to be preferred
  • Table3: The chart shows estimated weights of image cues in determining image quality preferences for both 30 À and 50þ groups. Each row shows the contribution of each cue (columns) to preference relative to the base case (as indicated in subtitles); a positive estimated weight implies that the case is more likely to be preferred
  • Table4: Measures of visual and oculomotor functions: the table shows the interaction between the objective measures before and after the chess game and the display type (Stereo or DOF þ Stereo)
  • Table5: Kruskal–Wallis Chi-square for difference in the mean pre-test versus mean posttest responses to the fatigue questions (collapsed over conditions)
  • Table6: Kruskal–Wallis Chi-square for differences between the Stereo and DOF þ Stereo conditions in exposure effect (Post-test minus pre-test fatigue responses)
Download tables as Excel
Funding
  • We would like to thank NSERC Canada for the Discovery grant to Robert Allison
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